of Used Refrigerants
Refrigerant Recovery is providing a regional collection point for used refrigerants. Please refer to the attached flyer for further details. The directors of Refrigerant Recovery would be grateful if you would forward this to contacts / customers so collections can be maximised. Refrigerant cylinders will be collected from Patton Limited / BOC Limited during the periods detailed in the attached flyer and transported to Auckland, Wellington, or Christchurch for decanting following which the empty cylinders will be returned to Patton Limited / BOC Limited for collection by the cylinder owners. Thanks for your attention to this and please do not hesitate to contact us if you have any questions or would like any further information.
6 Jun 2019
In the period from 2000-2015, the hole in the ozone layer shrank by more than 4 million square kilometers - nearly a billion acres - according to a new report in the journal Science. During the 1980s and into the 1990s, news of a massive hole in the ozone layer caused worldwide panic, stoked by everything from rumors of sheep being blinded by increased atmospheric radiation to the fear of a skin cancer pandemic
USA: Following the announcement of R466A, an alternative for R410A, its now been revealed that Honeywell is working on a further non-flammable R410A replacement refrigerant with an even lower GWP.
Speaking at the 18th European Conference on refrigeration and air conditioning technologies in Milan, Jean de Bernardi, Honeywell’s European technical manager, revealed the results of performance tests using R466A and a new Honeywell development refrigerant, HDR147, in a reversible heat pump system.
Honeywell created huge interest last year when it announced the introduction of R466A, a blend of R32, R125 and a new component, CF3I. In addition to claims of being non-flammable, its GWP is around 733, a considerable improvement on R410A.
The latest gas under investigation, HDR147, is yet to be assessed by ASHRAE, but is said to have GWP of around 400, and may be a long-term replacement for R410A. Like R466A, it includes CF3I but the other components have not been revealed.
The analysis was performed at typical air conditioning conditions using thermodynamic data from NIST database REFPROP 9.1. The table, above, shows the results of this analysis at ambient temperature of 35°C.
Theoretical performance tests showed that the development gas, HDR147, may have a capacity within 7% of R410A and a 2% higher efficiency. R466A shows a close match in performance to R410A, with capacity within 1% and a 2% higher efficiency than R410A.
Both refrigerants had lower suction and discharge pressures than R410A, while the compression ratios were very similar to R410A. Discharge temperatures for R466A is about 8°C and HDR147 about 11°C higher than R410A. Theoretical results show that both R466A and HDR147 may have slightly higher mass flow rate than R410A by 5% and 8% respectively.
Tests in a 3 ton R410A residential ducted split heat pump system are said to have indicated that both R466A and HDR147 can match the performance of R410A without significant system modification. Neither, however, are a retrofit option.
Significantly, both are also said to have shown more than 5% efficiency improvements at higher ambient temperatures compared to R410A.
Source: Cooling Post
6 Jun 2019
GERMANY: An environmental test chamber manufacturer has announced the development of a lower GWP alternative for R23, a specialist refrigerant used in low temperature refrigeration.
The solution from Weiss Technik, named WT69, comes after seven years of research in cooperation with Dresden University of Technology. Its GWP of 1357 is a marked improvement on R23 with its GWP of 14,800.
The new refrigerant is said to have the same properties as R23 and is non-flammable and non-toxic. The Cooling Post believes that it has been submitted for ASHRAE classification.
WT69 is said to be appropriate for use in deep-freeze applications reaching temperatures as low as -70°C (-94°F). It fulfils all the requirements for refrigerants in environmental simulation systems and is also a more climate-friendly alternative to R23 in large refrigeration plants in the chemical industry or for blood banks.
The refrigerant has been tested in Weiss Technik’s own test chambers. This has included 100,000 hours of testing over the past three years in more than 20 system configurations.
The company has not responded to questions from the Cooling Post, but we believe the refrigerant to be a blend of R32, R125 and CO2 in relatively equal proportions.
The company expects to be offering WT69 in its products by the end of this year.
Source: Cooling Post
5 Jun 2019
EUROPE: US air conditioning and refrigeration equipment manufacturer has confirmed that HFO refrigerants will be the basis for “most” of its future European product applications.
Carrier has been working to select the best candidate to replace the HFC R134a in screw and centrifugal chillers and HFC R410A in scroll chillers, heat pumps and rooftop units.
In a new statement, Carrier says it is committed to delivering solutions that preserve the environment and comply with the EU’s F-gas regulations. It points out that in, Europe, Carrier has already achieved a significant reduction of the refrigerant charge in its products of up to 50% over the last five years.
For screw chillers and heat pumps, Carrier has chosen the HFO R1234ze to replace R134a. R1234ze(E) is not impacted by restrictions from the EU F-gas regulation or the Kigali Amendment of the Montreal Protocol on fluorinated greenhouse gases. More than 300 AquaForce chillers using R1234ze(E) have been installed in Europe, Middle East and Africa since its launch three years ago, cumulating more than 2 million hours of use.
Carrier has chosen the HFO R1233zd(E) as the preferred long-term refrigerant for centrifugal chillers. With a GWP of 1, it is also not impacted by F-gas regulations. The Carrier AquaEdge 19DV already offers this refrigerant.
However, Carrier point out that for scroll commercial chillers and heat pump ranges, currently available compressor technology is not compatible with low GWP HFO refrigerants.
“Some solutions operate with mid-GWP HFC refrigerants and Carrier is developing a full range of cooling and heating products that will comply with and exceed Eco-design 2021 efficiency requirements and operate with mid-GWP HFC refrigerants,” the company said in a statement.
“These ranges are expected to launch very soon and are optimised for energy efficiency while offering the same operating temperature flexibility as current units operating with R410A.”
Source: Cooling Post
28 May 2019
JAPAN: Daikin has confirmed its intention to research a lower GWP alternative to R32 but says it will likely be some years before it can be commercialised.
Earlier this month, Japanese newspapers reported that president and CEO Masanori Togawa had discussed development work being carried out by Daikin on a new lower GWP A2L refrigerant for use in DX systems. The Japanese newspapers portrayed Mr. Togawa’s comments that the refrigerant would be available in 2023.
In a statement to the Cooling Post, the Japanese air conditioning manufacturer has sought to clarify its intentions.
It confirms that Daikin, along with Panasonic, Toshiba Carrier and Mitsubishi Electric are currently part of a Japanese-government-backed initiative to develop next-generation refrigerants and their application. Daikin’s particular role in the project is to conduct research on an A2L refrigerant for direct expansion air conditioners with a GWP of 10 or less.
“There is no guarantee of success, but results of the four-year research project are expected in March 2023. Its commercialisation and availability in new products, however, will likely be on a much longer time frame,” the company says in its statement.
“Toxicity and flammability tests for standardisation approval would take 2-3 years, then it would take a few years, at least, to develop the new products.
“In many applications and regions, Daikin still believes R32 is a suitable immediate refrigerant, but we will continue our research for even better alternatives in the future,” the statement adds.
Source: Cooling Post
23 May 2019
USA: The Environmental Investigation Agency has called for greater monitoring capacity and enforcement of the Montreal Protocol after a new report confirmed large scale emissions of ozone depleting CFC11.
A report published yesterday by an international team of atmospheric scientists pinpointed eastern China, in particular the provinces of Shandong and Hebei, as being the source of up to 60% of the rise in emissions of CFC11 first reported last year.
However, the new study revealed that there are large swathes of the world for which there is very little information on emissions of ODS.
“The fact that scientists cannot pinpoint the source of the remaining emissions demonstrates the lack of sufficient monitoring capacity in other parts of the world,” commented EIA-US climate campaign lead Avipsa Mahapatra. “This cannot be treated as isolated cases in China and underlines the need to fundamentally revisit the Montreal Protocol’s monitoring and enforcement regime, including expanding approaches to tracking the supply chain of controlled substances.”
The EIA says the report confirms the findings of its own investigations carried out last year. Its own report – Blowing it – suggested the illegal production and use of the long-banned ozone-depleting chemical was common practice in China.
Clare Perry, EIA UK’s Climate Campaign Leader added: “There are still multiple unresolved issues, including how much illegal CFC11 remains in hidden stockpiles or may have been already exported in foam products or polyol blends. However the most critical action for China now is to locate and permanently shut down all CFC11 production. This will require a significant and sustained intelligence-led enforcement effort from China.”
Source: Cooling Post
19 May 2019
UK: DEFRA has issued warnings of new F-gas rules that will ban virgin high GWP refrigerants, like R404A, in systems of 40 tonnes CO2e or more from 1 January 2020.
Under the European F-gas phase down timetable, virgin HFC refrigerant with a GWP greater than 2500 will be banned from being used to service or refill refrigeration or freezer systems, with a refrigerant charge size of 40 tonnes of CO2e or more. This equates to around 10.2kg of R404A, a common refrigerant in medium sized systems. Smaller and hermetically sealed systems should be unaffected by this ban.
In addition to the commonly used R404A, the ban will also include R507 and the R22 replacement gas R422D, both of which have GWPs in excess of 2500. The ban applies across Europe.
This rule also applies to companies who may have stockpiled these refrigerants before that date. Reclaimed or recycled refrigerant will still be able to be used until 2030.
DEFRA warns that operators who do not comply with the service ban are breaking the law and are liable for enforcement action. Regulators in England and Scotland can now issue civil penalties up to £200,000 to operators found to have breached the requirements of the regulation. Enforcement notices and possible fines can also be applied by enforcing authorities in Northern Ireland and Wales for breaches of F-gas provisions.
Source: Cooling Post
15 May 2019
JAPAN: Daikin hopes to introduce a low GWP refrigerant replacement for the current R32 in air conditioners in 2023.
UPDATE – 28 May 2019: Daikin: “R32 alternative some years away”
Announcing the air conditioning manufacturer’s latest financial figures last week, president and CEO Masanori Togawa told Japanese journalists that the company was employing AI technology to develop a new refrigerant with a GWP of 10 or less. This, he hoped, would be introduced in 2023.
Predicting it would be a “groundbreaking” refrigerant, he did, however, indicate that, like R32, it would be a “mildly flammable” A2L.
Plans for a new refrigerant are not unexpected. R32 was only ever perceived by Daikin as a medium-term solution in the drive to reduce air conditioning’s contribution to global warming.
Daikin is unique in being both a refrigerant producer and an air conditioning manufacturer. While the company has not had a major history of refrigerant development, it has been a major influence in the adoption of new gases .
Daikin was the pioneer in introducing R32 as a lower GWP replacement for R410A, a move which has since been followed by most major air conditioning manufacturers. It is also the main supplier of R407H, a lower GWP replacement for R40A in existing refrigeration systems.
There has also been a significant investment in resources available in this area and recently strengthened its refrigerant research personnel from 10 to more than 50. In 2015, it also gained a European manufacturing base with its purchase of Solvay’s German-based refrigerant business.
There is no indication what this refrigerant might be, but one suspects it will either be a pure HFO or, more likely, an HFC/HFO blend. Both R1234yf and R1234ze have previously been considered as potentials.
Source: Cooling Post
9 May 2019
SWITZERLAND: In a remarkable recount, the IEC has now voted to accept a new standard which will increase the flammable refrigerant charge limit in air conditioning and refrigeration equipment.
There has been no official confirmation as yet, but it appears that Malaysia’s “no” vote on proposals to amend the 60335-2-89 standard has been ruled out as it did not follow voting procedures.
Last month, the Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) vote at the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was defeated by just one vote. The nine opposing votes from the 35 nations voting, meant that the proposal could not enacted as it exceeded the maximum limit of 25%.
It was later found that Malaysia, one of those who voted against, did not include any technical justification as required by IEC directives clause 2.7.3. When this was pointed out to the IEC, Malaysia’s vote was rejected.
The amendment to the IEC 60335-2-89 standard has been in development since 2014. The long-awaited changes, if finally ratified, will see A3 refrigerant charge sizes increase to 500g and A2L refrigerants to 1.2kg.
Source: Cooling Post
12 May 2019
USA: The AHRI’s research arm is to assess refrigerant sensor and refrigerant detector performance requirements for flammable refrigerants.
Under the recently announced new research project – no 9014 – the Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Technology Institute (AHRTI) will assess detector performance whether in an occupied space or a machinery room.
With relevant flammable refrigerants safety standards, such as ASHRAE Standard 15 and UL Standard 60335-2-40, beginning to be implemented in the US, this research project is designed to help clarify the necessary refrigerant detector requirements and how to specify them.
Source: Cooling Post
7 May 2019
USA: Chemours says it is working with Carrier Transicold in Europe to adopt one of its long-term low GWP alternatives for transport refrigeration.
Carrier Transicold Europe, located in Rueil-Malmaison, France, is planning to replace R452A in transport refrigeration in 2021. Although R452A has only been offered by Carrier as a lower GWP alternative to R404A since 2015, its GWP of 2140 means it was never going to be a viable long-term solution.
Chemours Opteon XL range of refrigerants currently includes R454C (Opteon XL20) and R454A (Opteon XL40) as potential replacements for R404A. Both are “mildly flammable A2L refrigerants.
With a GWP of 146, R454C is the lowest GWP Opteon replacement for R404A and R22 in new equipment designs. It is a blend of 78.5% of the HFO R1234yf and 21.5% R32.
R454A is also made up of the same components, but with a higher proportion of R32. This is said to give it a greater overall performance and higher cooling capacity, but with a higher GWP of 238.
Chemours says it is actively engaged with Carrier Transicold Europe in working closely with regulatory and research groups to support the use of its Opteon XL refrigerants through proper equipment design and training based on applicable codes and standards.
Stressing the importance of transport refrigeration to the viability of the global cold chain, Chemours Fluorochemicalsvice president Diego Boeri said: “As the European F-gas regulation continues to move the HVACR industry toward more environmentally sustainable solutions, it is critical to provide lower GWP options to equipment manufacturers around the world.”
“Carrier is committed to providing efficient, sustainable solutions for its customers,” said Bertrand Gueguen, President, International Truck Trailer, Carrier Transicold. “The selection of a low-GWP refrigerant is the next logical step in the evolution of our industry,” said Bertrand Gueguen, president, international truck trailer, Carrier Transicold.
Carrier Transicold has previously stated its commitment to CO2 as the optimum refrigerant alternative for R134a in its container refrigeration units.
Source: Cooling Post
2 May 2019
USA: Chemours has blamed illegal refrigerant imports as a reason for a 6.15% drop in sales of its fluoroporoducts in the first quarter of the year.
In figures released today, Chemours reports that net sales for its fluoroproducts segment in the first quarter of 2019 were $687m in comparison to $732m in the same quarter last year.
Higher demand for R1234yf was said to have been more than offset by illegal imports, softer base refrigerant demand in North America, and supply constraints in fluoropolymers.
Earnings of the Fluoroporoducts division were 23% down on the previous quarter at $159m, due to lower net sales and higher than anticipated costs related to operating issues, including the startup of the company’s Corpus Christi R1234yf facility.
Source: Cooling Post
BELGIUM: Honeywell has announced the commercial availability of R452B, the lower GWP “mildly flammable” refrigerant alternative to R410A.
Seen as a competitor to R32, R452B is being marketed by Honeywell as Solstice L41y.
Like R410A – a 50/50 blend of R32 and R125 – this new refrigerant uses the same two components but this time with the addition of 26% R1234yf to 67% of R32 and only 7% R125.
This combination provides R452B with a GWP of 676, around 67% less than that of R410A. It is said to offer similar discharge temperatures to R410A and 5% higher energy efficiency. Significantly, its lower discharge temperature/pressure compared to R32 means that discharge temperature mitigation is not required.
Additionally, R452B enables up to 10% lower charge size compared to existing equipment that uses R410A. Honeywell also claims that its broader operating envelope enables the equipment to reach low-evaporating temperatures, outperforming R32 in heating mode and reach higher water temperatures in heat pump and chiller applications.
“Honeywell is working closely with leading global equipment and component manufacturers to optimise Solstice L41y for heat pump and chiller applications, where customers want to achieve high heating/cooling efficiency and water temperature while keeping the re-design costs low,” said Julien Soulet, vice president and general manager, Honeywell Fluorine Products Europe, Middle East and Africa.
The refrigerant is also being marketed by Chemours as Opteon XL55. Last year, Chinese air conditioning manufacturer Midea announced it would be using R452B in its unitary air conditioning units designed for the North American market.
Last month, Honeywell announced the development of R466A, a new non-flammable alternative to R410A in stationary air conditioning systems with a GWP of 733. This gas is not expected to be available until sometime next year.
Source: Cooling Post
CF3I is, seemingly, the unknown quantity in Solstice N41, Honeywell’s new R410A replacement refrigerant. But the records show that far from being new to the refrigerants business, it has been considered as a component in replacements for CFCs, HCFCs as well as HFCs in tests dating back at least 30 years. Could the earlier adoption of CF3I have saved the industry a number of system changes along the way?
Honeywell’s announcement at the end of June of Solstice N41, a potential non-flammable, lower GWP replacement for R410A, caused quite a stir.
Until now, R32 has been the only acceptable lower GWP alternative for small splits but that refrigerant’s “mild” flammability makes it unsuitable for VRF systems. And, it also has to be said that, rightly or wrongly, any degree of flammability is a source of concern for some engineers.
The Cooling Post’s exclusive story regarding the components of Honeywell’s new refrigerant and its likely GWP of 733 created equal interest.
It had previously largely been accepted that man-made HFC or HFO refrigerants with a GWP less than 1000 would be flammable to some degree. Now here is a refrigerant with a GWP estimated to be around 733 that is non-flammable.
Interestingly, the new refrigerant, given the provisional ASHRAE number of R466A, still contains the two constituents of R410A – R32 and R125 – but with the addition of a large slug of something called CF3I, also known as trifluoroiodomethane or trifluoromethyl iodide.
A fire suppressant with a GWP of just 0.4, CF3I is also being considered as a replacement for halon 1301 in unoccupied areas. It also seen as a potential medical propellant, is a seriously good foam blowing agent, an alternative to SF6 and is used as an etching gas in the production of semiconductors.
Despite its very low GWP, CF3I does, however, have a small ozone depletion potential, but more of that later.
For most in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry this will have been the first time that they have ever come across this gas but it has a history as a potential refrigerant replacement dating back at least 30 years. As far as refrigerants are concerned it has previously been researched and tested in various blends to replace CFCs and HCFCs, and, in some cases, HFCs.
Back in the early 1990s in the US, Jon Nimitz and Lance Lankford formed a now defunct company the Ikon Corporation in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and began patenting a number of blends of HFCs and CF3I. Known as iodofluorocarbons (IFCs), these were all described as non-flammable, “essentially zero” ozone-depletion potential, low GWP and exhibiting high performance. Importantly, to a large extent they were also seen as “drop-ins”.
Tests were carried out in association with NASA and the US Environmental Protection Agency on three refrigerants, Ikon A, Ikon B and Ikon C.
The most important was probably Ikon A, a near-drop-in replacement for R12, R500 and R134a. Fully miscible with mineral oil, it was a near-azeotropic blend of R152a and CF3I. Its temperature glide was said to be about 0.10-0.15K, making it suitable for critically flooded evaporators.
The inclusion of R152a, a low GWP gas, but largely overlooked due to its A2 flammability, helped Ikon A achieve a GWP of just 30.
It was tested in automotive air conditioners with good results and in an R12 reefer unit for two years with, it was reported at the time, no indications of incompatibility or refrigerant decomposition.
With a superior cooling capacity and energy efficiency to both R12 and R134a, the fact that it was never commercialised is probably down to timing and cost. By the end of the 90s when Ikon A was still undergoing tests, many manufacturers were already committed to R134a. In addition iodine, a major component of CF3I, is a relatively expensive material and large sources of supply were, and are, limited.
Also, a report at the time states that, from the point of view of car manufacturers, Ikon A’s efficiency was expected to only result in a small saving in fuel consumption, but that “the relatively high leak rates or automotive air conditioning systems make an inexpensive refrigerant such as R134a more desirable for these systems”. Little were they to know that, just a few years later, R134a would be supplanted in new cars by an even more expensive replacement in R1234yf, or that the cost of R134a, in Europe at least, would go through the roof.
In the meantime, CF3I was seemingly forgotten until 2006 and the introduction of the MAC directive. This European edict demanded that automotive manufacturers switch to a refrigerants with a GWP below 150. So, goodbye R134a with its GWP of 1430.
Chemical companies scrabbled to be first with yet another new non-flammable refrigerant alternative. Many toyed with the newly developed, “fourth generation” HFOs. One of these, R123yf, would eventually become the generally accepted industry standard, but there were initial concerns regarding that refrigerant’s “mild flammability” – a characteristic that would later meet heavy criticism from German car manufacturers.
Initially, however, Honeywell had worked on a non-flammable blend which twinned R1234yf with our old friend CF3I. The inclusion of 30% CF3I in the blend made it non-flammable. Honeywell was also thought to be looking at a blend of R32 and CF3I at this time as well.
The 1234yf/CF3I blend was known by Honeywell as Fluid H, and, jokingly, as Preparation H by its competitors.
Initial tests were encouraging. Fluid H demonstrated lower leak rates than R134a and performance evaluations were described as “promising” especially in optimised systems. Being non-flammable, aftermarket service procedures were expected to be no different than those with R134a.
However, by the end of 2007, Honeywell had abandoned Fluid H to concentrate on the single substance R1234yf as the replacement for R134a.
There was speculation that Fluid H had stability problems, and that the assessment panels of the Montreal Protocol had raised environmental and health concerns about the toxic and ozone-depleting characteristics of CF3I.
Source: Cooling Post